Urology is a surgical subspecialty that focuses on the medical and surgical treatment of disorders and diseases of the female urinary tract and the male urogenital system. It involves diagnosis, endoscopy, surgery and lithotripsy.
The most common clinical encounters involve prostate disease, renal dysfunction particular to surgical management (colic, stones), bladder dysfunction and urinary tract infections. A urologist must understand the normal function and the pathological processes and diseases that affect the adrenal gland, the kidneys, ureters, bladder, urethra in the male and female, and the prostate and external genitalia of the male. This includes an understanding, appropriate to the practice of urology of normal development and embryology, biochemistry and pharmacology, physiology, anatomy, and gross and microscopic pathology of the genito‐urinary tract.
Emergency care is less often a feature of urology compared to other surgical specialties.
(Source: Royal College and Pathway Evaluation Program, https://www.cma.ca/Assets/assets-library/document/en/advocacy/Urology-e.pdf)